# Posts 177 through 188 # Post 189-190: Friedrich Hayek and Karl Popper on Historicism # Post 191: Anti-Realism and Relativistic Historicism compound MacIntyre’s Ethical Skepticism # Post 192: Kierkegaard is the Real Postmodern Socrates # Post 195: The Straw Man Critique of Kierkegaardian Subjectivity # Post 196: Wittgenstein’s Unscientific Conclusion on Virtue # Post 198: Braver's Schema of Realism/Antirealism # Post 200: Can belief in teleology be consistent with realist, or antirealist epistemology? # Post 201: Pray and curse “Pray and curse”—Hegel (Documents on Hegel's development, Johannes Hoffmeister,1936, pp. 351, 353 ,360, 370 found in Heiss, p. 38 ). But can teleology originate from natural history, and not just the history of human civilization? Some would argue the natural world is completely contingent (Wittgenstein) while other philosophers such as Hegel, agree that nature itself unfolds teleologically encompassing human history. Interestingly, the later Hegel would give less emphasis to the historical teleology of “Phenomenology of Spirit” (1807)(pdf.) as the first volume of his system subsequently followed by the second volume, “Science of Logic” (Greater version)(1812-1816), and lastly “Philosophy of Nature “(1817). However, when Hegel again presented his system in a summary form, the “Science of Logic,” (Lesser version)(pdf.) became the first division as his introduction in “Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences,”(1817)(pdf. final 1830 version). In the Encyclopedia summary, Hegel derives each category of reality from the previous to finish a unified system: The subdivisions are ordered as Science of Logic (Lesser), Science of Nature, and “Science of Geist “(Mind) (pdf.). For a further study see, “Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx,” by Robert Heiss, trans. E.B. Garside, Delta books, 1975, p. 122-23. So logic is now first in the Hegelian philosophical system, instead of the teleological history of human cognition found in his Phenomenology of Spirit, suggesting there is within the system an ontological foundation for telos in history. Professor Houlgate commented, "Nature, as it emerges in Hegel’s philosophy, is in turn understood to be not just brute contingency or sheer givenness, but actually existing reason (“An Introduction to Hegel, Freedom, Truth and History,” Stephen Houlgate, Blackwell 2005, pp.106-8 ).” In Hegel’s system, “What is rational is real; and what is real is rational (“Philosophy of Right,”1897; pdf.) which means that Reason (Logos) expresses itself in a dialectical process of unity, diremption, and re-unification as actuality that encompasses both the natural world (science of nature), and the history of cognitive experience (phenomenology of Mind, or Spirit). In Hegel’s logic “…pure being proves ultimately to be self-determining reason or what Hegel calls the ‘ldea’ …‘The Idea, ... contracting itself into the immediacy of being, is the totality in this form – nature’ (Hulgate).” Being is nothing but nature; however, Hegel also says that nature is not fully rational and requires time to develop: “Time is the teleology of consciousness” (J. Hyppolite, “Genesis and Structure of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit,” Northwestern University, 1974 p. 579)(pdf.). We can conclude that Hegel believed in a version of ontologism (plus time) whose thesis is “the human intellect has as its proper object the knowledge of God, that this knowledge is immediate and intuitive, and that all other knowledge must be built on this base.” Historical teleology can also be a religious belief. Hegel’s position on historical teleology is ultimately based on the Christian concept of the Logos. Ironically, this very idea of teleology in Marx’s historicist criticism of capitalism is interpreted today as absolutely anti-Christian. Narratives are inherently teleological, and like Kant’s category of efficient causality, we cannot think of an effect without a cause so we irresistibly think (with habituated reified language) of a final cause for such events. And yet, teleological historicism is also a useful methodology for researching society and human history as the Italian historicist, Giambattista Vico, once wrote, “What is made is true.” My evolving view now is that historical teleology is not only subjective, but also objective and can be discovered with research and thereby achieve verstehen for both the realist and antirealist epistemologists.